The Russians had hoped to prove the plane never entered Turkish airspace, as claimed by Ankara. Work will continue to try to retrieve the data.
The incident sparked a major bilateral crisis, with Russia imposing sanctions.
The Russian military representatives presented their preliminary findings in Moscow on Monday, after opening the "black box" on Friday in the presence of international experts.
Some 13 of the 16 chips had been destroyed, while x-ray tests on the others showed extracting information would be impossible using normal methods.
The Su-24 was shot down by F-16 fighters on 24 November.
Turkey insists that the jet, from the Russian air contingent deployed in Syria in support of President Bashar al-Assad, ignored warnings to leave its airspace.
Both crew members ejected but the pilot was killed, apparently by militants on the ground while the navigator was rescued.